Genesis 1


GENESIS is the book of beginnings. It records not only the beginning of the heavens and the earth, and of plant, animal, and human life, but also of all human institutions and relationships. Typically, it speaks of the new birth, the new creation, where all was chaos and ruin. With Genesis begins also that progressive self-revelation of God which culminates in Christ. The three primary names of Deity, Elohim, Jehovah, and Adonai, and the five most important of the compound names, occur in Genesis; and that in an ordered progression which could not be changed without confusion. The problem of sin as affecting man’s condition in the earth and his relation to God, and the divine solution of that problem are here in essence. Of the eight great covenants which condition human life and the divine redemption, four, the Edenic, Adamic, Noahic, and Abrahamic Covenants are in this book; and these are the fundamental covenants to which the other four, the Mosaic, Palestinian, Davidic, and New Covenants, are related chiefly as adding detail or development. Genesis enters into the very structure of the New Testament, in which it is quoted above sixty times in seventeen books. In a profound sense, therefore, the roots of all subsequent revelation are planted deep in Genesis, and whoever would truly comprehend that revelation must begin here. The inspiration of Genesis and it character as a divine revelation are authenticated by the testimony of Christ # Mt 19:4 -6 24:37-39 # Mr 10:4 -9 Lu 11:49-51 17:26-29 , 32 # Joh 1:5 7:21-23 8:44 , 56. Genesis is in five chief divisions:

I. Creation (1. 1 -2.25)

II. The fall and redemption (3. 1 -4, 7).

III. The Diverse Seeds, Cain and Seth, to the Flood (4.8 -7.24).

IV. The Flood to Babel (8.1-11.9).

V. From the call of Abram to the death of Joseph (11:10-50:26).

The events recorded in Genesis cover a period of 2 , 315 years (Ussher).

[1] {God}

Elohim (sometimes El or Elah), English form "God," the first of the three primary names of Deity, is a uni-plural noun formed from El=strength, or the strong one, and Alah, to swear, to bind oneself by an oath, so implying faithfulness. This uni-plurality implied in the name is directly asserted in # Ge 1:26 (plurality), # Ge 1:27 (unity) see also # Ge 3:22. The Trinity is latent in Elohim. As meaning primarily the Strong One it is fitly used in the first chapter of Genesis. Used in the OT about 2500 times.

See Scofield "Ge 2:4" # Ge 2:7

See Scofield "Ge 14:18"

See Scofield "Ge 15:2"

See Scofield "Ge 17.1"

See Scofield "Ge 21:33"

See Scofield "1Sa 1:3"

[2] {created}

But three creative acts of God are recorded in this chapter:

(1) heavens and the earth, v.1;

(2) animal life, v.21; and

(3) human life, vs. 26 , 27. # Ge 1:1 , 21 , 26 , 27.

The first creative act refers to the dateless past, and gives scope for all the geologic ages.

[[Typist’s note: The above is is the "GAP" theory.]]

For Another Point of View: See Topic 401495 (Gap Theory) For Another Point of View: See Topic 108756


[3] {without form and void}

# Jer 4:23-27 Isa 24:1 45:18 clearly indicate that the earth had undergone a cataclysmic change as the result of divine judgment. The face of the earth bears everywhere the marks of such a catastrophe. There are not wanting imitations which connect it with a previous testing and fall of angels.

See # Eze 28:12-15 Isa 14:9-14 which certainly go beyond the kings of Tyre and Babylon.

For Another Point of View: See Topic 401495 (Gap Theory) For Another Point of View: See Topic 108756


[4] {Let there be light}

Neither here nor in verses 14-18 is an original creative act implied. A different word is used. The sense is, made to appear; made visible. The sun and moon were created "in the beginning." The "light" of course came from the sun, but the vapour diffused the light. Later the sun appeared in an unclouded sky.

For Another Point of View: See Topic 401499 (Old Universe)


[1] {day} [2] {evening}

[1] {day}

The word "day" is used in Scripture in three ways:

(1) that part of the solar day of twenty-four hours which is light # Ge 1:5 , 14 Joh 9:4 11:9.

(2) such a day, set apart for some distinctive purpose, as, "day of atonement" (# Le 23.27); "day of judgment" # Mt 10:15.

(3) a period of time, long or short, during which certain revealed purposes of God are to be accomplished, as "day of the Lord."

[2] {evening}

The use of "evening" and "morning" may be held to limit "day" to the solar day; but the frequent parabolic use of natural phenomena may warrant the conclusion that each creative "day" was a period of time marked off by a beginning and ending.

For Another Point of View: See Topic 401484 (Days) For Another Point of View: See Topic 108757


[Marg] {firmament} Lit. expanse (i.e. of waters beneath, of vapour above).


[Marg] {firmament} i.e. the expanse above, the "heaven" of the clouds. # Ge 7:11 8:2.


[3] {bring forth grass}

It is by no means necessary to suppose that the life-germ of seeds perished in the catastrophic judgment which overthrew the primitive order. With the restoration of dry land and light the earth would "bring forth" as described. It was "animal" life which perished, the traces of which remain as fossils. Relegate fossils to the primitive creation, and no conflict of science with the Genesis cosmogony remains. [[Typist’s Note: THE GAP THEORY]]

For Another Point of View: See Topic 401495 (Gap Theory) For Another Point of View: See Topic 108756


[4] {greater light} [Marg] {made}

[4] {greater light}

The "greater light" is a type of Christ, the "Sun of righteousness" # Mal 4:2. He will take this character at His second advent. Morally the world is now in the state between # Ge 1:3-16 Eph 6:12 Ac 26:18 1Pe 2:9. The sun is not seen, but there is light. Christ is that light # Joh 1:4 , 5 , 9 but "shineth in darkness," comprehended only by faith. As "Son of righteousness" He will dispel all darkness. Dispensationally the Church is in place as the "lesser light," the moon, reflecting the light of the unseen sun. The stars # Ge 1:16 are individual believers who are "lights" # Php 2:15 , 16 Joh 1:5.

A type is a divinely purposed illustration of some truth. It may be:

(1) a person # Ro 5:14

(2) an event # 1Co 10:11

(3) a thing # Heb 10:20

(4) an institution # Heb 9:11

(5) a ceremonial # 1Co 5:7

Types occur most frequently in the Pentateuch, but are found, more sparingly, elsewhere. The antitype, or fulfilment of the type, is found, usually, in the New Testament.

[Marg] {made} The word does not imply a creative act; vs. # Ge 1:14-18 are declarative of function merely.

For Another Point of View: See Topic 401499 (Old Universe)


[Marg] {heaven}

i.e. the "heaven" of the stars; e.g. # Ge 15:5 Lu 23:43


[1] {every living creature}

The second clause, "every living creature," as distinguished from fishes merely, is taken up again in verse 24, showing that in the second creative act all animal life is included.


[2] {living creature}

"Creature," Heb. nephesh, trans. soul in # Ge 2.7 and usually. In itself nephesh, or soul, implies self-conscious life, as distinguished from plants, which have unconscious life. In the sense of self-conscious life animals also have "soul." See verses # Ge 1:26 , 27 2:7 , 21-23. See Scofield "Ge 1:26".

For Another Point of View: See Topic 401471 (Dinosaurs)


[3] {make man in our image} [Marg] {us}

[3] {make man in our image}

Man. # Ge 1:26 , 27, gives the general, # Ge 2:7 , 21-23 the particular account of the creation of man. The revealed facts are:

(1) Man was created not evolved. This is

(a) expressly declared, and the declaration is confirmed

by Christ # Mt 19:14 Mr 10:6,

(b) "an enormous gulf, a divergence practically infinite"

(Huxley) between the lowest man and the highest beast,

confirms it;

(c) the highest beast has no trace of God-consciousness—the

religious nature;

(d) science and discovery have done nothing to bridge that


(2) That man was made in the "image and likeness" of God. This image is found chiefly in man’s tri-unity, and in his moral nature. Man is "spirit and soul and body" # 1Th 5:23.

"Spirit" is that part of man which "knows" # 1Co 2:11 and which allies him to the spiritual creation and gives him God-consciousness. "Soul" in itself implies self-consciousness life, as distinguished from plants, which have unconscious life. In that sense animals also have "soul" # Ge 1:24. But the "soul" of man has a vaster content than "soul" as applied to beast life. It is the seat of emotions, desires, affections # Ps 42:1 -6. The "heart" is, in Scripture usage, nearly synonymous with "soul." Because the natural man is, characteristically, the soulual or physical man, "soul" is often used as synonymous with the individual, e.g. # Ge 12:5. The body, separable from spirit and soul, and susceptible to death, is nevertheless an integral part of man, as the resurrection shows # Joh 5:28 , 29 1Co 15:47-50 Re 20:11-13. It is the seat of the senses (the means by which the spirit and soul have world-consciousness) and of the fallen Adamic nature. # Ro 7:23 , 24.

[Marg] {us} # Ge 11:7


[4] {DISPENSATION} [5] {And God blessed them} [6] {Be fruitful}


A dispensation is a period of time during which man is tested in respect of obedience to some specific revelation of the will of God. Seven such dispensations are distinguished in Scripture. See Scofield "Ge 1:28", note [5].

Additional Factors to Consider: See Topic 301178

[5] {And God blessed them}

The First Dispensation: Innocency. Man was created in innocency, placed in a perfect environment, subjected to an absolutely simple test, and warned of the consequence of disobedience. The woman fell through pride; the man deliberately. # 1Ti 2:14 God restored His sinning creatures, but the dispensation of innocency ended in the judgment of the Expulsion # Ge 3:24 See, for the other dispensations;

Conscience See Scofield "Ge 3:23"

Human Government See Scofield "Ge 8:21"

Promise See Scofield "Ge 12:1"

Law See Scofield "Ex 19:8"

Grace See Scofield "Joh 1:17"

Kingdom See Scofield "Eph 1:10"

For Another Point of View: See Topic 301178

[6] {Be fruitful}

The Edenic Covenant, the first of the eight great covenants of Scripture which condition life and salvation, and about which all Scripture crystallizes, has seven elements. The man and woman in Eden were responsible:

(1) To replenish the earth with a new order—man;

(2) to subdue the earth to human uses;

(3) to have dominion over the animal creation;

(4) to eat herbs and fruits;

(5) to till and keep the garden;

(6) to abstain from eating of the tree of knowledge of good and evil;

(7) the penalty—death. See, for the other seven covenants:

ADAMIC See Scofield "Ge 3:14"

NOAHIC See Scofield "Ge 9:1"

ABRAHAMIC See Scofield "Ge 15:18"

MOSAIC See Scofield "Ex 19:25"

PALESTINIAN See Scofield "De 30:3"

DAVIDIC See Scofield "2Sa 7:16"

NEW See Scofield "Heb 8:8"

Genesis 2


[1] {sanctified}

In the O.T. the same Hebrew word (qodesh) is translated sanctify, consecrate, dedicate, and holy. It means, set apart for the service of God. See refs. following "Sanctify," See Scofield "Ge 2.3".


[2] {Lord}

[Marg] {Lord God}

[2] {Lord}

LORD (Heb. Jehovah)

(1) The primary meaning of the name LORD (Jehovah) is the "self-existent One." Literally (as in # Ex 3:14), "He that is who He is, therefore the eternal I AM:"

But Havah, from which Jehovah, or Yahwe, is formed, signifies also "to become," that is, to become known, thus pointing to a continuous and increasing self-revelation. Combining these meanings of Havah, we arrive at the meaning of the name Jehovah. He is "the self-existent One who reveals Himself." The name is, in itself, an advance upon the name "God" (El, Elah, Elohim), which suggests certain attributes of Deity, as strength, etc., rather than His essential being.

(2) It is significant that the first appearance of the name Jehovah in Scripture follows the creation of man. It was God (Elohim) who said, "Let us make man in our image" (# Ge 1:26); but when man, as in the second chapter of Genesis, is to fill the scene and become dominant over creation, it is the Lord God (Jehovah Elohim) who acts. This clearly indicates a special relation of Deity, in His Jehovah character, to man, and all Scripture emphasizes this.

(3) Jehovah is distinctly the redemption name of Deity. When sin entered and redemption became necessary, it was Jehovah Elohim who sought the sinning ones # Ge 3:9-13 and clothed them with "coats of skins" # Ge 3:21 a beautiful type of righteousness provided by the Lord God through sacrifice # Ro 3:21 , 22. The first distinct revelation of Himself by His name Jehovah was in connection with the redemption of the covenant people out of Egypt # Ex 3:13-17. As Redeemer, emphasis is laid upon those attributes of Jehovah which the sin and salvation of man bring into exercise. These are:

(a) His holiness # Le 11:44 , 45 19:1 , 2 20:26 Hab 1:12 , 13

(b) His hatred and judgment of sin

# De 32:35-42 Ge 6:5 -7 Ps 11:4 -6 66:18 Ex 34:6 , 7

(c) His love for and redemption of sinners, but always


# Ge 3:21 8:20 , 21 Ex 12:12 , 13 Le 16:2 , 3 Isa 53:5 , 6 , 10

Salvation by Jehovah apart from sacrifice is unknown to


(4) In his redemptive relation to man, Jehovah has seven compound names which reveal Him as meeting every need of man from his lost state to the end. These compound names are:

(a) Jehovah-jireh, "the Lord will provide" # Ge 22:13 , 14

i.e., will provide a sacrifice;

(b) Jehovah-rapha, "the Lord that healeth" # Ex 15:26.

That this refers to physical healing the context shows,

but the deeper healing of soul malady is implied.

(c) Jehovah-nissi, "the Lord our banner" # Ex 17:8-15. The

name is interpreted by the context. The enemy was Amalek,

a type of the flesh, and the conflict that day stands for the

conflict of # Ga 5:17 the war of the Spirit against the

flesh. Victory was wholly due to divine help.

(d) Jehovah-Shalom, "the Lord our peace," or "the Lord send

peace" # Jud 6:24. Almost the whole ministry of

Jehovah finds expression and illustration in that chapter.

Jehovah hates and judges sin # Ge 2:1 -5. Jehovah loves and

saves sinners # Ge 2:7-18 but only through sacrifice

# Ge 2:19-21 see also # Ro 5:1 Eph 2:14 Col 1:20.

(e) Jehovah-ra-ah, "the Lord my shepherd" (Psa 23.). In

Ps. 22 Jehovah makes peace by the blood of the cross; in Ps

23. Jehovah is shepherding His own who are in the world.

See Scofield "Joh 10:7"

(f) Jehovah-tsidkenu, "the Lord our righteousness" # Jer 23:6.

This name of Jehovah occurs in a prophecy concerning the

future restoration and conversion of Israel. Then Israel

will hail him as Jehovah-tsidkenu—"the Lord our


(g) Jehovah-shammah, "the Lord is present" # Eze 48:35. This

name signifies Jehovah’s abiding presence with His people

# Ex 33:14 , 15 1Ch 16:27 , 33 Ps 16:11 97:5 Mt 28:20 Heb 13:5

(5) Lord (Jehovah) is also the distinctive name of Deity as in

covenant with Israel # Ex 19:3 20:1 , 2 Jer 31:31-34.

(6) Lord God (Heb. Jehovah Elohim) is the first of the compound

names of Deity. Lord God is used distinctly:

(1) of the relation of Deity to man

(a) as Creator # Ge 2:7-15

(b) as morally in authority over man # Ge 2:16 , 17

(c) as creating and governing the earthly relationships of man

# Ge 2:18-24 3:16-19 , 22-24 and

(d) as redeeming man # Ge 3:8-15 , 21

(2) of the relation of Deity to Israel # Ge 24:7 28:13

# Ex 3:15 , 18 4:5 5:1 7:6 De 1:11 , 21 4:1 6:3 12:1

# Jos 7:13 , 19 , 20 10:40 , 42 Jud 2:12 1Sa 2:30 1Ki 1:48

# 2Ki 9:6 # 2Ki 10:31 1Ch 22:19 2Ch 1:9 Ezr 1:3 Isa 21:17

See other names of Deity,

See Scofield "Ge 1:1"

See Scofield "Ge 14:18"

See Scofield "Ge 15:2"

See Scofield "Ge 17:1"

See Scofield "Ge 21:33"

See Scofield "1Sa 1:3"

[Marg] {Lord God} Deity (names of God) See Scofield "Mal 3:18"

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